IN CHURCH HISTORY.
By A Catholic Historian.
AUSTRALIAN CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY No. 1443 (1964).
SIGNIFICANT DATES IN CHURCH HISTORY.
30 Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, birthday of the Catholic Church. St. Peter preached to Jews at Jerusalem; 3,000 became converts.
33 St. Stephen, deacon, stoned to death at Jerusalem; first martyr of the Church.
35-67 St. Paul, formerly Saul, persecutor of Christians, converted and baptized, added to company of the Apostles. The Apostle of the Gentiles and New Testament author made missionary journeys to Cyprus, Asia Minor, Macedonia, Corinth, perhaps even to Spain. Beheaded at Rome, circa 67.
39 Cornelius became the first Gentile convert; baptized by St. Peter.
42 Herod Agrippa persecuted Christians in the Holy Land. St. James the Greater beheaded, first Apostle to die; St. Peter imprisoned but miraculously released; many Christians fled to Antioch and elsewhere. At Antioch the followers of Christ were first called Christians.
42-67 St. Peter arrived at Rome, circa 42, established his see there; Rome thus became the seat of the papacy. The Prince of the Apostles left Rome for a time, did missionary work in the Holy Land, presided over the Council of Jerusalem; returned to Rome and was martyred there, circa 67.
49 Christians at Rome, considered members of a Jewish sect, suffered because of the decree of Claudius which forbade Jewish worship there.
51 The Council of Jerusalem, in which the Apostles participated under the presidency of St. Peter, decreed that circumcision and the observance of various Mosaic prescriptions were not necessary for converts. The decree was issued to oppose the error of Judaizers who contended that observance of the Mosaic Law in its entirety was essential for salvation.
64 Nero set fire to Rome and accused the Christians there for the crime, thus beginning the era of great Roman persecutions. Sts. Peter and Paul were casualties of this persecution.
70 Titus destroyed Jerusalem.
88-97 Pontificate of St. Clement I, first of the Apostolic Fathers, third successor of St. Peter as pope. His letter to the Church at Corinth, concerning a schism there, gave clear evidence of the primacy of the See of Rome.
95 Domitian persecuted Christians, chiefly at Rome.
Circa 100 St. John, last of the Apostles, died at Ephesus. With his death, the Deposit of Faith (revelation through the inspired works of the Old and New Testaments and Tradition) was complete.
Circa 107 St. Ignatius of Antioch martyred at Rome. First to use in his writings the expression, The Catholic Church.
112 Rescript to Pliny. The emperor Trajan instructed Pliny, governor of Bithynia, not to search for Christians but to punish them if they were publicly denounced and refused to adore the gods. The rescript set a pattern for Roman magistrates.
117-138 Persecution under Hadrian. Many Acts of Martyrs date from this period.
Circa 125 Spread of Gnosticism. (Heresy)
Circa 155 St. Polycarp martyred; Bishop of Smyrna and disciple of St. John the Evangelist.
Circa 156 Beginning of Montanism (heresy).
161-180 Reign of Marcus Aurelius. His persecution more violent than those of his predecessors.
165 St. Justin martyred at Rome; leading apologist.
Circa 180 St. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, Father of Catholic Theology, wrote Adversus Haereses (Against the Heresies); stated that the teaching and tradition of the Roman See is the standard for belief. Disciple of St Polycarp.
196 Easter Controversy. (What date should Catholics celebrate Easter?)
The Didache (The Teachings of the Apostles) was written in the second century; important record of Christian belief, practice and government in first century.
Latin was introduced in the West as a liturgical language.
The Catechetical School of Alexandria increased in importance.
202 Persecution under Septimus Severus, who wanted to establish one common religion in the Empire.
206 Tertullian, a convert since 197, joined the heretical Montanists; charged that Pope St. Callistus was too lenient in readmitting to the Church persons guilty of certain grave sins. Died in 230. Before joining the Montanists, was the first great ecclesiastical writer in Latin.
215 Death of Clement of Alexandria; teacher of Origen and a founding father of the School of Alexandria.
217-235 St. Hippolytus, the first antipope; reconciled to Church while in prison during persecution in 235. (Ecclesiastical writer.)
232 254 Origen established School of Caesarea after being deposed in 231 as head of the School of Alexandria. Died in 254; Voluminous writer and scholar, one of the founders of systematic theology; exerted wide influence for many years.
Circa 242 The beginning of Manichaeism in Babylonia, Persia.
249-251 Persecution under Decius. Many of those who denied their Faith (Lapsi) sought readmission to the Church at the end of the persecution In 251. Pope St. Cornelius had important correspondence with Bishop St. Cyprian on the subject: Lapsi were to be readmitted after suitable penance. The letters gave evidence of the primacy of Rome.
250-300 Neo-Platonism (philosophy) of Plotinus and Porphyry gained followers.
251 Pope St. Stephen upheld the validity of baptism administered by heretics. Controversy on this subject was a disciplinary matter, and involved St. Cyprian.
257 Persecution under Valerian, who attempted to destroy the Church as a social structure. St. Cyprian martyred 258. Pope St Stephen martyred.
Circa 260 St. Lucian founded the exegetical (Bible) School of Antioch.
Circa 260 Pope St Dionysius joined by Bishop St Dionysius of Alexandria condemned the teachings of Sabellius and the Marcionites.
Circa 260 St. Paul of Thebes became first Christian hermit.
261 Gallienus issued an edict of toleration which ended general persecution for nearly 40 years.
Circa 266 Sabellianism condemned and Paul of Samosata deposed.
292 Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into East and West. The division emphasized political, cultural and other differences between the two parts of the Empire. Prestige of Rome began to decline.
Circa 303 The Council of Elvira in Spain legislated regarding clerical celibacy; declared the indissolubility of marriage as the traditional teaching of Christ and his Church.
303 Persecution under Diocletian, at the urging of Galerius; ended in West in 306, continued for 10 years in East; particularly violent in 304.
305 St. Anthony of Heracles established an eremitical foundation near the Red Sea, in Egypt.
310 St. Hilarion made a similar establishment in Palestine.
311 An edict of toleration issued by Galerius at the urging of Constantine and Licinius officially ended persecution; some persecution continued in the East.
313 The Edict of Milan issued by Constantine and Licinius recognized Christianity as a lawful religion and the legal freedom of all religions; provided that the Church was to be compensated for losses sustained in the persecutions.
314 The Council of Arles condemned Donatism in Africa, declared that baptism by heretics is valid.
318 St. Pachomius established the first foundation of the cenobitic (common) life, as compared with the solitary (eremitical) life of hermits in Upper Egypt
325 The First General (Ecumenical) Council at Nicaea condemned Arianism and formulated the Nicene Creed.
337 Baptism and death of Constantine.
Circa 342 Beginning of 40 years persecution in Persia.
343-4 Council of Sardica reaffirmed the Nicene Creed, declared that bishops had the right of appeal to Rome as the highest authority in the Church.
361-3 Emperor Julian the Apostate tried to restore paganism as the state religion campaigned against the Church by persecution, legal and other measures.
Circa 365 Persecution under Valens in the East.
374 At the Council of Rome, Pope St. Damasus published the list (Canon) of the inspired works of the Old and New Testaments (confirming some earlier decisions).
Circa 376 Beginning of barbarian invasions in the West.
379 Death of St. Basil, the Father of Monasticism in the East. His writings contributed greatly to the development of rules for the religious life.
381 The Second General (Ecumenical) Council of Constantinople condemned Arians, Semi-Arians and Macedonians; reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.
382-circa 406. St. Jerome translated the Old and New Testaments into Latin; his work is called the Vulgate version of the Scriptures.
396 St. Augustine became Bishop of Hippo in Africa.
397 Council of Carthage.
397 Death of St. Ambrose of Milan.
410 Visigoths sacked Rome.
411 Donatism was condemned, again, by a council at Carthage.
415 St. Augustine refuted the Pelagians, who discounted and denied the necessity of grace for salvation.
430 St. Augustine died.
431 The Third General (Ecumenical) Council of Ephesus condemned Nestorius, who denied that Mary was the Mother of the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity made Man; issued a final condemnation of Pelagianism.
432 St. Patrick arrived in Ireland. By the time of his death in 461 most of the country had been converted, monasteries founded and the hierarchy established.
438 The Theodosian Code, a compilation of decrees for the Empire, was issued by the emperor Theodosius. It had great influence on subsequent civil and ecclesiastical law.
444 St. Cyril of Alexandria died.
449 The Robber Council of Ephesus, which had no ecclesiastical authority, declared itself in favour of the heretical teachings of Eutyches; he contended that Christ had only one nature (Monophysitism).
451 The Fourth General (Ecumenical) Council of Chalcedon condemned Monophysitism (Eutychianism) i.e. the error stated in the previous paragraph. Pope St. Leo I, the Great refused to approve Canon 28 issued by the Council; this canon falsely asserted that the primacy of Rome was based on political position.
452 Pope St. Leo the Great persuaded Attila the Hun to spare Rome.
455 Vandals sacked Rome. The decline of Imperial Rome, already underway, dates approximately from this time.
494 Pope St. Gelasius I declared in a letter to Emperor Anastasius that the pope had power and authority over the emperor in spiritual matters. The letter is an important document regarding the concept of papal authority.
496 Clovis, King of the Franks, was converted, and became the defender of Christianity in the West. The Franks became a Catholic people.
520 and later Irish monasticism flourished; monasteries were training places for missionaries, and centres of study where scholars were developed and manuscripts of importance preserved and copied for posterity.
529 The Second Council at Orange condemned Semi-Pelagianism. St. Benedict founded the Monastery of Monte Cassino. A few years before his death in 543 he wrote the monastic rule which exercised tremendous influence on the future of the religious life. He is the Father of Monasticism in the West.
533 John II became the first pope to change his name. The practice of changing the name, however, did not become general until the time of Sergius IV (1009).
533-534 Emperor Justinian promulgated the Corpus Juris Civilis for the Roman world; it influenced subsequent civil and ecclesiastical law.
Circa 545 Dionysius Exiguus died; he introduced the division of history into periods before and after Christ B.C., and A.D. His calculations were at least four years in error (late).
553 The Fifth General (Ecumenical) Council (Constantinople II) condemned the Three Chapters, writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyprus and Ibas of Edessa, which contained Nestorian errors.
585 St. Columban founded the influential monastic school at the Luxeuil Abbey in Frankish territory. He died in 615.
589 The Council of Toledo was held in Spain. The Visigoths renounced Arianism, and St. Leander successfully began the (re-)organization of the Church in Spain.
590-604 Pontificate of Pope St. Gregory I, the Great. He initiated liturgical and disciplinary reforms, enforced clerical celibacy, upheld the prerogatives of the Holy See. Gregorian Chant is named in his honour.
596 Pope St. Gregory I, the Great sent St. Augustine of Canterbury and 40 monks as missionaries to England.
597 St. Columba (Columcille) died. He founded the important monastery at Iona in Scotland, established schools, and did notable missionary work in Scotland. By the end of the century, monasteries of nuns were common; Western monasticism was flourishing, monasticism in the East, under the influence of Monophysitism and other evils, was losing its vigour.
610-633 Mohammed, born circa 570, claimed divine delegation to establish a religion for the Arabs. First taught openly in 613; was forced to flee from Mecca to Medina (Hegira) in 622; thereafter spread Mohammedanism (which he called Islam submission to God) by the sword; died in 632. By the end of the century Mohammedanism claimed almost the entire southern Mediterranean area. Their sacred book is the Koran, substantially the work of Mohammed; 622 is the Year 1 of the Mohammedan or Moslem era.
613 St. Columban established the influential Monastery of Bobbio in Northern Italy.
629 Emperor Heraclius recovered the True Cross from the Persians.
636 St. Isidore of Seville, the most learned man of his day died.
649 A Lateran Council condemned two erroneous formulas (Ecthesis and Type) issued by emperors Heraclius and Constans II as means of reconciling Monophysites with the Church (but which lead to the heresy of the Monothelites.
664 Actions of the Synod of Whitby advanced the adoption of Roman usages in England, especially regarding the date for the observance of Easter.
680-681 The Sixth General (Ecumenical) Council, Constantinople III, condemned the error of the Monothelites, who contended that there was only one will, the divine, in Christ. The Council declared that Christ had a human will and a divine will. During the century, the monastic influence of Ireland and England increased in Western Europe; schools and learning in general declined; regulations regarding clerical celibacy became more strict in the East.
711 The Moslems began their conquest of Spain.
723 St. Winfrid, Apostle of Germany, became Bishop (St.) Boniface.
726 Eastern Emperor Leo III, the Isaurian, issued an edict which declared that the veneration of images, pictures and relics was idolatrous, and ordered their removal from churches. This was the error of Iconoclasm, or image-breaking.
727 A synod at Rome declared that the veneration of images was in accordance with Catholic tradition. Pope Gregory III condemned Iconoclasm in 731.
731 Venerable (St.) Bede issued his Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
732 Charles Martel defeated the Moorish Moslems at Poitiers, thus halting any farther advance by them in the West.
744 The Monastery of Fulda was established by St. Sturm, a disciple of St. Boniface.
Circa 750 St. John Damascene, last of the Greek Fathers of the Church, died.
754 A council of bishops at Hieria endorsed Iconoclast errors. This council and its actions were condemned by the Lateran Synod of 769.
754 Pope Stephen III crowned Pepin ruler of the Franks. Pepin twice invaded Italy, in 754 and 756, to defend the Pope against the Lombards. His land grants to the papacy, called the Donation of Pepin, were later extended by Charlemagne, King of the Franks (773) and formed part of the States of the Church.
Circa 755 St. Boniface (originally Winfrid) was martyred. Called the Apostle of Germany for his missionary work and organization of the hierarchy there.
781 Alcuin was chosen by Charlemagne to organize the Palace School, which became a centre of intellectual leadership.
787 The Seventh General (Ecumenical) Council (Nicaea II), condemned Iconoclasm and Adoptionism. Adoptionists contended that Christ was not the Son of God by nature but by adoption; the error was condemned by Pope Adrian I in 785 and again in 794, and by several councils.
792 A council at Ratisbon condemned Adoptionism. The famous Book of Kells, The Great Gospel of Columcille, dates from the early eighth or late seventh century.
800 Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day.
800 Egbert became King of West Saxons unified England, strengthened See of Canterbury.
813 Emperor Leo V, the Armenian, revived the Iconoclast heresy in the East and persecuted Catholics holding to the true belief in reference to the veneration of images. His successor, Michael II (820-829), continued Leos policies.
814 Charlemagne died.
842 A Synod at Constantinople countered Iconoclasm by asserting the decrees of the Seventh Ecumenical Council (787).
843 The Treaty of Verdun split the Frankish kingdom among Charlemagnes three grandsons.
844 A Eucharistic controversy involving the works of Paschasius Radbertus, Ratramnus and Rabanus Maurus helped to formulate theological terminology regarding the doctrine of the Real Presence.
846 The Moslems invaded Italy, attacked Rome.
848 The Council of Mains condemned Gottschalk for heretical teaching regarding predestination. He was also condemned by the Council of Quierzy in 853.
857 Photius was illegally appointed Patriarch of Constantinople after the deposition of (St.) Ignatius, the legitimate incumbent. Thus began the Photian Schism, which was condemned by the Roman Synod of 863 and the Eighth General (Ecumenical) Council in 869.
865 St. Ansgar, (Oscar) Apostle of Scandinavia, died.
868 Sts. Cyril (died 869) and Methodius (died 885) were consecrated bishops. The Apostles of the Slavs devised the Slavonic alphabet and translated the Gospels and liturgy.
869 The Eighth General (Ecumenical) Council (Constantinople IV), condemned Iconoclasm, deposed Photius and restored (St.) Ignatius to the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
871-circa 900 Reign of Alfred the Great the only English king ever anointed by the pope at Rome.
910 William, Duke of Aquitaine, founded the Benediction Abbey of Cluny, which became a centre of monastic and ecclesiastical reform.
911 Catholicism began in Normandy, following the baptism of the Norman (Viking) leader Rollo.
915 Pope John X led the expulsion of Moslems from northern Italy.
955 St. Olga, of the Russian and Ukrainian royal family, was baptized.
962 Otto I, the Great, crowned by Pope John XII, revived Charlemagnes kingdom, which became the Holy Roman Empire. The sovereignty of Germany and Italy was thus vested in a German prince.
966 Mieszko, first of a royal line in Poland, was baptized; he brought Latin Christianity to Poland.
989 (St.) Vladimir, ruler of Russia, was baptized; Russia was subsequently Christianized by Greek missionaries.
993 John XV was the first pope to decree the official canonization of a saint (St. Urlich) for the universal Church. (From the very beginning, the Church venerated saints; public official honour always required the recognition of heroic sanctity or martyrdom, and the approval of the bishop of the place.)
997 St. Stephen became ruler of Hungary. He assisted in organizing the hierarchy and establishing Latin Christianity.
999-1003 Pontificate of Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aquitaine), a Benedictine monk and the first French pope.
1012 St. Romuald founded the Camaldolese Hermits.
1025 The Council of Arras, and other councils, later, condemned the Catharists (Neo-Manicheans, Albigenses).
1027 The Council of Elne (or Toulouges) proclaimed the Truce of God as a means of stemming violence. The Truce involved armistice periods, which were later extended.
1038 St. John Gualbert founded the Vallumbrosan order.
1047 Pope Clement II died; the only pope ever buried in Germany.
1049-54 Pontificate of St. Leo IX, who inaugurated a reform movement of wide and lasting influence. His, and later, reforms of the period centred around papal elections, clerical celibacy, control of ecclesiastical offices, and other matters including lay investiture.
1054 Michael Caerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, quarreled with the pope, disputed usages of the Latin Church; refused to obey, and led most of the Eastern churches (called Orthodox) into schism.
1059 The Lateran Council of this year (not a General Council) issued new legislation regarding papal elections. The voting power was entrusted to the Roman cardinals.
1066 St. Edward the Confessor died; established Westminster Abbey.
1066 William the Conqueror invaded England; later he opposed the independence of the Church in England from secular control.
1073-85 Pontificate of St. Gregory VII (Hildebrand, experienced advisor of several popes). He continued programmes of reform and took measures against lay investiture. He opposed Henry IV, the German Emperor, and even absolved Henrys subjects from allegiance to him; this was the first case of the deposition of an emperor by a pope.
1077 Lay investiture and pope-emperor relations reached a climax when Henry IV (1056-1105) submitted to Gregory VII at Canossa. Henry later repudiated this action and finally abdicated.
1079 The Council of Rome condemned Eucharistic errors of Berengarius who retracted.
1084 St. Bruno founded the Carthusians.
1093 St. Robert founded the Cistercians.
1095-99 The Council of Clermont inaugurated the First Crusade. The Crusaders took Jerusalem in 1099.
1103 Beginnings of the influential abbey and school of St. Victor.
1111 As a solution to the problem of investiture of prelates, Pope Paschal II proposed that prelates should surrender feudal lord rights and that the emperor should give up rights to investiture.
1115 St. Bernard established the Abbey of Clairvaux and inaugurated the Cistercian reform of Europe.
1115 St. Anselm of Canterbury died; an important figure in the development of Scholastic philosophy and theology.
1118 Christian forces captured Saragossa in Spain; Moslem power began to decline in that country.
Circa 1120 Pope Callistus II issued the Bull Sicut Judaeis; in defence of the rights of Jews. The measure was republished by four other popes during the century.
1120 Beginnings of the Norbertines or Premonstratensians; the first order was for men, the second for women, the third for lay persons. (St Norbert was the founder.)
The Norbertine Third Order was the first in the history of the Church.
1122 The Concordat of Worms (Pactum Callixtinum) contained these provisions regarding the investiture of prelates: the emperor could invest prelates with the symbol of temporal authority but had no right to invest them with symbols of spiritual authority (since ecclesiastical jurisdiction was from the Church alone); the emperor was not to interfere in papal elections. This was the first concordat in history. (Pope Callistus II.)
1123 The Ninth General (Ecumenical) Council (Lateran I) at Rome endorsed provisions of the Concordat of Worms. This was the first General Council in the West.
1139 The Tenth General (Ecumenical) Council (Lateran II) at Rome adopted measures against the schism organized by anti-pope Anacletus, against the followers of Arnold of Brescia and Peter of Bruys, and issued disciplinary decrees.
1140 St. Bernard met Abelard in debate at the Council of Sens. Abelard was first condemned in 1121 for rationalistic tendencies. He died in 1142 at the Abbey of Cluny where he had retired alter being ordered by Innocent II to stop teaching.
1147 The Second Crusade, preached by St. Bernard, started for the Holy Land; ended unsuccessfully at Damascus.
1148 The Synod of Rheims enacted stricter disciplinary decrees for religious communities of women.
1152 The Synod of Kells reorganized the Church in Ireland.
1153 St. Bernard died; outstanding figure of the century, founder of mediaeval mysticism.
1154-55 A community of monks founded by St. Merthold (or Bertold) marked the beginning of the Carmelite Order in its medieval form.
1160 Gratian died; compiled a Decretum which became a basic text of Canon Law.
Circa 1160 Peter Lombard died; compiled the Four Books of Sentences, a standard text until the time of St. Thomas Aquinas.
1170 St. Thomas aBecket, Archbishop of Canterbury, who had clashed with Henry II regarding clerical immunities, was murdered in his cathedral.
1171 Pope Alexander III reserved the process of canonization to the Holy See.
1179 The Eleventh General (Ecumenical) Council (Lateran III) at Rome enacted measures against the Waldenses and Albigensians; provided that popes should be elected by a two-third vote of cardinals present.
1184 The Waldenses, and others, were excommunicated as heretics by Pope Lucius III.
1192 The Third Crusade ended in a truce; Moslems held Jerusalem but granted permission for Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy Sepulchre and other Holy Places.
1204 Fourth Crusaders sacked Constantinople; Latin Empire of East begun; leaders of the Crusade excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
1205-13 Papal struggle with King John of England over the election of the Archbishop of Canterbury; England under Interdict for five years.
1208 Innocent III called for a crusade against the Albigensians. This was the first crusade in a Christian country.
1209 Verbal approval given by Innocent III for foundation of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) by St. Francis of Assisi.
1213 Poor Clares founded - by St Clare and St Francis.
1212 Childrens Crusade a complete failure.
1215 The Twelfth General (Ecumenical) Council (Lateran IV) at Rome enacted 70 reform decrees, ordered annual confession to the parish priest and Easter Communion, issued a creed against the Albigensians, made first official use of the term transubstantiation.
1216 Death of Pope Innocent III, who raised the papacy to a new height of prestige.
1216 St. Dominic received formal papal approval for his new Order of Preachers (Dominicans). The famous Portiuncula Indulgence was granted by the Holy See at the request of St. Francis of Assisi.
1221 Death of St. Dominic.
1221 Founding of Third Order of St. Francis, for lay people in the world.
1226 Death of St. Francis of Assisi, popularizer of the Christmas Crib custom (1223); received the Stigmata in 1224.
1227 Death of Pope Honorius III, who had exerted great influence in moral reform and education.
1228-29 Peaceful negotiations during the Fifth Crusade secured possession of Bethlehem and Jerusalem.
1231 Death of St. Anthony of Padua, famous Franciscan preacher and miracle-worker.
1233 Papal Inquisition instituted to oppose heresy.
1244 Turks recaptured Jerusalem.
1245 The Thirteenth General (Ecumenical) Council (Lyons I) considered measures against Frederick II, the German Emperor.
1247 Carmelite Order received preliminary approval.
1248-54 Sixth Crusade, (to Egypt) a failure.
1250 Death of Emperor Frederick II, who had been hostile to the Holy See for many years.
1253 Death of St. Clare of Assisi.
1261 End of the Latin Empire in the East.
1264 St. Thomas Aquinas composed the Mass and Office for the new feast of Corpus Christi.
1270 Death of St. Louis IX, King of France (while on crusade); France at this time was the strongest nation in Europe.
1270 Beginning of papal decline. Difficulties with Charles of Anjou.
1274 Died: St. Thomas Aquinas, Doctor of the Church; author of the Summa Theologica; St. Bonaventure, Doctor of the Church, Franciscan theologian and author.
1274 Fourteenth General (Ecumenical) Council (Lyons II) effected temporary reunion with the Eastern Church.
1280 Pope Nicholas III died; made the Breviary official for the Roman Church; it had been edited and published in a single book by Innocent III.
1281 The excommunication of the Greek Emperor by Pope Martin IV ruptured the union effected with the Eastern Church in 1274.
1296 Pope Boniface VIII issued the Bull Clericis Laicos which forbade the clergy to submit to lay taxation.
1300 Jubilee observed at Rome; attended by thousands from all over Christendom.
1301 Pope Boniface VIII withdrew privileges of the French King, Philip the Fair, who had arrested a bishop and refused his appeal for trial at Rome.
1302 Boniface VIII issued Unam Sanctam which stressed the primacy of the spiritual over temporal power.
1309 Pope Clement V began the Babylonian Captivity of the papacy, establishing residence at Avignon; beginning of the line of French popes.
1311-12 Fifteenth General (Ecumenical) Council of Vienne condemned a number of errors, suppressed the Knights Templar, sought aid for the Holy Land.
1321 Dante died; completed his Divine Comedy the previous year.
1323 Beginning of the struggle between Pope John XXII and the emperor, Louis of Bavaria, during which Louis was excommunicated and the pope called a heretic by Louis followers.
1327 Defensor Pacis by Marsilius of Padua was condemned; it upheld the Conciliarist Theory, i.e., that a general council was superior to the pope, thereby threatening the primacy of the pope.
1328 After invading Italy and being accepted by the people as emperor, Louis deposed John XXII and set up an antipope. Nicholas V. the antipope, later sought reconciliation with the Holy See.
1337 Beginning of the Hundred Years War.
1338 In the Declaration of Rense, the German electors stated that the pope had only the right to formal coronation of the emperor at Rome.
1348 The Black Death spread throughout Europe, taking a terrible toll of life; a shortage of priests was one of the effects.
1351-53 New laws in England were designed to limit papal powers there.
1356 The Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV renewed the Declaration of Rense, eliminated papal rights in election of the emperor.
1364-65 Universities of Cracow and Vienna established.
1367 Pope Urban V, nearly 60 years after the residency of the papacy had begun at Avignon, went to Rome.
1370 Urban V returned to Avignon; Rome was in a state of anarchy.
1374 Petrarch died.
1377 Partly due to the influence of St. Catherine of Siena, Gregory XI ended the Avignon residency of the popes and moved to Rome. Italy was in a disturbed condition; Florence was placed under interdict.
1378 Wycliff denied the doctrine of transubstantiation.
1378 Beginning of the Western Schism (more than one claimant to the Papal throne).
1397 The Turks besieged Constantinople.
1409 The Council of Pisa, which had no authority for its action, chose a third claimant to the papacy after stating that Gregory XII and Benedict XIII were schismatics, thus complicating the Western Schism. The seeds of the Conciliar Movement began to develop from such action on the part of the cardinals.
1414-18 The Sixteenth General (Ecumenical) Council of Constance marked the end of the Western Schism, condemned Wycliff and Hus, issued decrees for ecclesiastical reform. Martin V began an era of concordats made necessary by the rise of nationalism, which opposed the supernational character and mission of the Church. Agreements with states were necessary to safeguard the Churchs rights and those of the faithful.
1431 St. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake.
1431 The Council of Basle was called. The supreme power of the pope, which had previously been questioned by such writers as Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham, was challenged; such an attitude had grown as a result of the Great Schism. Extreme advocates of the Consular Theory argued that, when the need arose, a general council could depose the pope.
1438 The French National Council at Bourges issued the Pragmatic Sanctions which affirmed Gallican liberties and limited the rights and powers of the Holy See.
1438-43 The Seventeenth General (Ecumenical) Council of Florence reaffirmed the primacy of the pope, thus dealing a death blow to the Conciliar Movement; attempted to effect union with the Greeks and other Oriental sects, and to establish peace among Christian princes.
1453 Fall of Constantinople and the renewal of schism on the part of the Orthodox churches of the East. Henceforth the popes concentrated on stopping the Turkish menace from the East; their pleas for crusades by the West generally had disappointing results.
1456 First printed edition of the Bible by movable type.
1476 Permission was granted for establishment of the Inquisition in Spain. Sixtus IV proclaimed that the feast of the Immaculate Conception should be observed by the universal Church on December 8.
1492 Discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus.
1493 Alexander VI issued a Bull of Demarcation which determined what might be called spheres of influence for the Spanish and Portuguese in the New World; it provided for the propagation of the Christian Faith in the newly discovered territories.
1512-17 The Eighteenth General (Ecumenical) Council (Lateran V) defined the relation of the pope to general councils, condemned errors regarding the nature of the human soul, called for a crusade against the Turks.
1517 Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses at Wittenberg; among other things they contained an attack on the doctrine of indulgences.
1520 Luther published his Address of the Christian Nobility of the German Nation concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate.
The papal Bull Exsurge Domine demanded his recantation. Luther burned the Bull publicly at Wittenberg in December; he was formally excommunicated the following month.
1524 Beginning of the Peasant Wars. Lutheranism became associated with strong German princes, from whom it gained political support.
1528 The Capuchin Order, a branch of the Franciscans, became leaders in the Counter-Reformation.
1529 The Catholic Church was abolished in Sweden by royal decree. State Lutheran Church replaces it.
1531 Protestant princes formed the Schmalkaldic League; soon all of Northern Germany was united in Lutheranism.
1531 Zwingli died; leader of Reformation in Switzerland.
1535 Henry VIII, excommunicated in 1533, proclaimed the Act of Supremacy and the Oath of Succession. St. John Fisher of Rochester and St. Thomas More refused to recognize the claims of Henry VIII and were martyred. The confiscation of monasteries in England followed.
1536 John Calvin published Institutes of the Christian Religion, and took up the work started by Zwingli in Switzerland.
1546 The constitutions of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) were approved; St. Ignatius Loyola was their founder.
1541 Geneva became the Protestant Rome, the stronghold of Protestant thought.
1542 The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office was established and became a leading agency in the Counter-Reformation.
1545-63 The Nineteenth General (Ecumenical) Council of Trent issued canons and decrees which stated Catholic belief on matters of faith and practice which were under attack by the Reformers, and mobilized the Counter-Reformation.
1546 Legal Measures in Denmark virtually crushed Catholicism there; Norway and Iceland were gradually forced to adopt Lutheranism.
1546 Martin Luther died.
1549 First Book of Common Prayer published in England; substituted Communion Service in English for the Mass, included errors about the Holy Eucharist.
1552 St. Francis Xavier, Jesuit, died; one of the greatest missionaries in Church history.
1553-58 During her reign as Queen of England, Mary Tudor took counter-measures against the actions of Henry VIII.
1555 Provisions of the Treaty of Augsburg stated that rulers of the German states had the right to decide what religion should be professed in their territories.
1558 Matthew Parker was invalidly consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury; all Anglican orders thereafter were invalid.
1560 Legal measures in Scotland destroyed the Catholic Church there; John Knox was a leading organizer of the Presbyterian Church there.
1563 Adoption of the 39 Articles and re-passage of the Act of Supremacy and the Oath of Succession during the reign of Elizabeth, Queen of England; the Church of England came into full being as an heretical body.
1564 John Calvin died.
1567 The errors of Baius were condemned; his teaching would have compromised with Lutheranism on the nature of original sin, grace and freedom of will.
1570 Queen Elizabeth of England was excommunicated.
1571 Defeat of the Turkish Armada at Lepanto staved off invasion in Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean.
1571 The Sacred Congregation of the Index was established to combat anti-Catholic writings.
1572 St. Bartholomews Eve massacre of Huguenots (Protestants) in various places in France was a political manoeuvre of Catherine of Medici.
1579 The Union of Utrecht formed the alliance of the northern provinces of the Netherlands, which became the Dutch Republic (in opposition to the Spanish throne), and made Protestantism the state religion.
1582 The Gregorian Calendar was put into effect and was eventually adopted by most countries of the world.
1583 Death of St. Teresa of Avila.
1587 St. Robert Bellarmine published De Controversiis, the greatest literary defence of the Faith issued during the Counter-Reformation period.
1593 Catholics were banished from England.
1601 Matteo Ricci (died 1610), Jesuit missionary, settled at Peking, China.
1605 A few Catholic fanatics conspired in the Gunpowder Plot to blow up King James I of England and the houses of Parliament. The plot was discovered and the conspirators condemned to death. One of the results was the Oath of Allegiance, which was condemned by Pope Paul V in 1606 as violating Catholic consciences.
1610 St. Francis de Sales and St. Jane de Chantal founded the first community of Visitation Nuns.
1611 Founding of the Oratorians by St. Philip Neri.
1613-42 The Galileo Controversy; Galileo died at peace with the Church.
1618-48 Thirty Years War; ended by the Treaty of Westphalia, which confirmed the Peace of Augsburg, of 1555 which stated that rulers of the German states had the right to decide what religion should be professed in their territories.
1625 Founding of the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians) by St. Vincent de Paul. He founded the Sisters of Charity in 1633.
1642 Sulpicians founded by Jacques Olier.
1648 Bolland, a Belgian Jesuit, began publication of the Acta Sanctorum, a critical work on lives of the saints; continued after his death by the Society of the Bollandists.
1649 Oliver Cromwell, effective ruler of England, invaded Ireland and began a severe persecution of Catholics.
1653 Pope Innocent X condemned the errors of Jansen. Jansens Augustinus, published in 1640, imputed erroneous ideas on grace to St. Augustine.
1657 Blaise Pascals Provincial Letters in favour of Jansenism, were condemned.
1668 The Clementine Peace of Pope Clement IX quieted the Jansenist controversy for 30 years.
1673 The Test Act in England barred all Catholics from public office if they would not deny the doctrine of transubstantiation and receive Communion in the Anglican Church.
1678 The Popish Plot resulted in the deaths of many English Catholics; Titus Oates, a discredited Anglican minister, falsely claimed that Catholics planned to assassinate King Charles I, land a French army, burn London, and place the government in the hands of the Jesuits.
1683 Bossuet drew up the Four Articles of 1682 which expressed fundamental ideas of Gallicanism: the pope had no authority over princes in temporal affairs, the power of the pope was limited by general councils, the power of the pope was limited by customs and practices of the Gallican (French) Church, decisions of the pope were infallible only with consent of the Church. The tenets were condemned in 1690.
1687 Quietism of Molinos was condemned by Pope Innocent XI; Molinos died repentant in 1696.
1688 The Toleration Act granted a certain amount of freedom of worship to English dissenters, but intentionally excluded Catholics.
1718 Pope Clement XI issued the Bull Unigenitus, in which he condemned 101 Jansenistic propositions of Quesnel.
1713-74 Catholics in Canada. The Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, ceded Newfoundland, Acadia and the Hudson Bay Territory to Great Britain and guaranteed freedom of religion to the almost entirely Catholic populations. In 1752, 7,000 Acadians were driven from their homes. In 1774 the Quebec Act gave legal rights to the Church in Canada.
1724 Catholics persecuted in China.
1733 St. Alphonsus Liguori founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists).
1738 Pope Clement XII condemned Freemasonry in the bull In Eminenti forbidding Catholics to join the Freemasons under pain of excommunication. The condemnation and prohibition were repeated by Benedict XIV in 1751, and by later popes.
1741 Papal approval was given to the Clerics Regular of the Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord (Passionists); the founder was St. Paul of the Cross.
1743 Febronianism began in Germany with the publication of a book by John Nicholas von Hontheim, under the pseudonym Febronius, which was directed against papal authority. Febronianism was condemned in 1764, 1769 and 1775.
1759-73 Suppression of the Jesuits. They were expelled from Portugal in 1759, from France in 1764, from Spain in 1767; false accusations and political intrigue were principal factors in these developments. Clement XIV in 1773 issued a Brief of Suppression which contained no criticism of the Society nor of its members. The Society was restored in 1814.
1778 The Catholic Relief Act in England permitted Catholics to buy and inherit land, and abolished the penalty of life imprisonment for priests.
1780 The beginnings of Josephism in Austria under Emperor Joseph II; an attempt to make the Church in Austria almost independent of the pope.
1788 Proclamation of religious liberty in the United States.
1789-98 The Church in France. French Revolution, 1789; secularization of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790; persecution of priests, religious and laity who remained loyal to papal authority; Napoleon invaded the Papal States, 1796; persecution renewed from 1797-1799, and attempts were made to de-Christianize France and establish a new religion; in 1798 French troops occupied Rome and carried the pope away to France; Pius VI died at Valence in 1799.
1794 Pope Pius VI condemned decrees of the Synod of Pistola, 1786, which favoured Jansenism and Gallicanism.
1802 Concordat with France re-establishing and giving legal rights to the Church.
1808 Papal States incorporated in Napoleonic Empire.
1809-14 Exile and captivity of Pope Pius VII.
1814 Fall of Napoleon; return of Pius VII to Rome. Restoration of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits).
1817 Concordats signed with German states, granting limited freedom of action to the Church.
1822 Pontifical Society for the Propagation of the Faith established.
1826 Catholic Relief Act in England and Ireland removed some legal disabilities of Catholics.
1829 Catholic Emancipation in Great Britain and Ireland.
1832 Pope Gregory XVI issued the encyclical Mirari Vos, condemning the movement known as Catholic liberalism.
1833-45 Development of the Oxford Movement which resulted in notable conversions in England, e.g. John Henry, later Cardinal, Newman in 1845 [now Blessed].
1833 Founding of the Catholic University of Louvain.
1848 Flight of Pope [Blessed] Pius IX from Rome to Gaeta. Communist Manifesto issued by Karl Marx.
1850 Catholic hierarchy re-established in England.
1852 Catholic universities founded at Dublin and Quebec (Laval named after Blessed Francois de Laval who died in 1708, Canadas first bishop).
1853 Hierarchy re-established in Holland.
1854 Proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
1858 Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to St. Bernadette at Lourdes.
1860 Piedmontese began to occupy parts of the Papal States.
1864 Pope [Blessed] Pius IX issued the Syllabus a systematic condemnation of modernistic errors.
1867 Publication of the first volume of Das Kapital by Karl Marx; organization of the (Communist) First International.
1867 Expropriation of Papal States completed.
1868 Disestablishment of the Anglican Church in Ireland.
1870 The Twentieth General (Ecumenical) Council of the Vatican, opened the previous year, defined the dogma of the Infallibility of the Pope. Formation of the Old Catholics who opposed the dogma of infallibility.
1871 Establishment of the new German Empire and the beginning of the Kulturkampf, the persecution of Catholics in Germany. Development of anti-clericalism in France. Pope [Blessed] Pius IX made himself a virtual prisoner in the Vatican when recognition was not given to temporal possessions and papal sovereignty in Italy.
1873 May Laws in Germany (anti-Catholic).
1878-1903 Pontificate of Pope Leo XIII; promoted a revival of Scholastic philosophy; indicated proper approach to Scriptural study. Perhaps his best known encyclical is Rerum Novarum, dealing with conditions of the working classes and opposed to deceptive Communistic and Socialistic developments.
1881 The first International Eucharistic Congress was held at Lille, France.
1889 Catholic University of America founded at Washington, D.C.
1903-14 Pontificate of St. Pius X. He began the codification of Canon Law, 1904; removed the ban against participation by Catholics in Italian national elections, 1905; issued decrees calling upon the faithful to receive Holy Communion frequently and daily, and stating that children should receive First Communion at the age of seven, 1905 and 1910, respectively; ordered the establishment of the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine for religious instruction in all parishes throughout the world, 1905; condemned Modernism in the decree Lamentabili and encyclical Pascendi 1907.
1903 Expulsion of religious orders and congregations from France; confiscation of Church property, 1906.
1910 Laws of separation in Portugal. Breaking of diplomatic relations between Spain and the Holy See.
1914-18 World War I.
1914-23 Pontificate of Benedict XV, who was concerned with minimizing the material and spiritual havoc of World War I; in 1917 he offered to act as mediator between the belligerent nations, but his pleas for settlement of the conflict went unheeded. In 1919 he issued the decree Maximum Illud, in which he urged the recruiting and training of native clergy in missionary lands.
1917 Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Fatima. Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and the subsequent rise of Communism. New constitution in Mexico approved, giving the state control over religious worship; anti Catholic persecution under way.
1918 The new Code of Canon Law, promulgated in 1917, became effective.
1922-38 Pontificate of Pius XI. Concluded the Lateran Treaty, 1929, which settled the Roman Question and ended the voluntary imprisonment of popes in the Vatican since 1870; maintained the freedom and independence of Catholic Action in Italy, in the encyclical Non Abbiamo Bisogno, 1931 (and condemning Fascism); issued the encyclicals Quadragesimo Anno, developing the social teachings of Leo XIII in Rerum Novarum, and Divini Redemptoris, calling for social justice and condemning Communism, 1931 and 1937, respectively; condemned anti-Semitism, 1937 in encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge which condemns Nazi-ism.
1931 Proclamation of the Spanish Republic and anti-Church measures by the government.
1933 Rise of Hitler in Germany and subsequent persecution of Catholic opposition to racist and eugenic policies which reached a peak in 1940.
1936-38 Persecution during the Spanish Civil War, in which some 30,000 priests and religious, and numerous lay persons, lost their lives.
1939-58 Pontificate of [Venerable] Pius XII.
1939-45 World War II.
1940-50 Decade of Communist conquest in 13 countries resulting in conditions of persecution for a minimum of 60 million Catholics as well as members of other faiths.
1940 Mitigation of persecution in Mexico through non-enforcement of still existing laws.
1954 Canonization of St. Pius X.
1957 Attempt to begin national schismatic church in Red-controlled China.
1958-63 Pontificate of [Blessed] John XXIII.
1959-61 Fidel Castros overthrow of Batista government in Cuba and campaign against the Church.
1962 Opening on October 11 of the Second Vatican Council, the twenty-first such council in the history of the Church. [Council concluded in 1965. 16 documents were issued by this Council.]
1963 Election and beginning of the reign of [Servant of God] Paul VI, 26th June, 1963, second session of Vatican Council is held. Constitution of Liturgy drawn up.
[1963-1978 Pontificate of Servant of God Paul VI.
1978 Pontificate of Servant of God John Paul I.
1978-2005 Pontificate of Blessed John Paul II.
1983 The new Code of Canon Law promulgated.
2005 Election and beginning of the reign of Benedict XVI.]